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How Energy-Efficient Are We?

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As the cement sector moves towards a sustainable future, energy conservation takes centrestage. ICR looks at the efforts taken and challenges faced in achieving energy-efficient manufacturing processes

The power or energy generation in India is shared between national public utilities (around 40 per cent), state utilities and private companies (around 30 per cent each). This management sector of energy is split between several ministries: the Ministry of Power (MoP) for electricity and the coordination of energy conservation programmes; the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoPNG); the Ministry of Coal; and, finally, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).

According to the India Energy Report, 2021 by Enerdata, the total energy consumption per capita remained around 0.7 tonne of oil equivalent (toe) in 2021, which was about half of the Asian average consumption. Electricity consumption per capita reached 970 kWh in 2021, about a third of the Asian average. Total energy consumption reached 927 Mtoe in 2021 (+4.7 per cent), which was still 1.2 per cent below the 2019 level. It had increased rapidly over 2010-2019 (4 per cent per year). Coal is the country›s top energy source with a share of 44 per cent in 2021, followed by oil (24 per cent) and biomass (22 per cent). Natural gas covered 6 per cent and primary electricity (hydro, nuclear, solar, and wind) was at 4 per cent.

The energy sector aims to achieve an ambitious target of 450 GW of solar and wind in 2030 as it has pledged to reach carbon neutrality by 2070. What makes this target seem achievable is that the renewable capacity of the Indian energy sector (excluding large hydro) overtook 100 GW in 2021. While three quarters of the energy requirement is still met by fossil fuels, the overall consumption of energy has gone down by 5 per cent in 2021.

Cement plays a vital role in building the economy of a nation. The sector is largely dominated by players with large manufacturing capacities, making the cement industry one of the largest in the country and one that is energy intensive.

The Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme of the Ministry of Power, Government of India has so far covered 126 numbers of cement plants in India targeting to reduce specific energy consumption since its inception from 2012 onwards.

The Bureau of Energy Efficiency states that based on the threshold defined, 85 numbers of cement plants were included as DCs and their cumulative energy consumption was 15.01 million MTOE in PAT Cycle-1. Based on their specific energy consumption level, these DCs were given SEC target reduction of an average 5.43 per cent resulting in 0.815 million TOE energy consumption reduction in absolute terms. The cement sector constituted 12.19 per cent of the overall energy saving target under PAT Cycle-1.

The total savings achieved by the cement sector covering 75 numbers of designated consumers in PAT Cycle-1 is 1.48 million MTOE which is 0.665 million MTOE in excess of the target. At present, the energy consumption of these cement units as designated consumers is 23.246 million tonnes of oil equivalent. The target given for them from PAT Cycle –II onwards is 0.94 million tonnes of oil equivalent.

The cement sector is highly energy-intensive, consuming approximately 7 per cent of global industrial energy consumption each year. The manufacturing process is carried out in stages. From grinding of raw material in raw mill grinders, to pyroprocessing and clinkerisation and then grinding of clinker in roller press mills, vertical mills, balls mills etc., to obtain the final product, cement. Each stage consumes a significant amount of energy and organisations are constantly looking at solutions, technology, automation and better equipment to optimise the quantum of energy consumed in the process.

Pictorial depiction of cement manufacturing process.

Given the significant impact that the manufacturing industry has on global sustainability and considering the increasing economic pressure introduced by a competitive market and the reduction of available energy resources, optimising the energy efficiency of production systems has become a primary concern.

According to the Technological Energy Efficiency Improvements in Cement Industries Report, 2021 published at MDPI, energy consumption in the cement industry is provided by electricity and fuels.

Over 90 per cent of fuels used are consumed in the production of clinker. Electric energy, on the other hand, is used for about 39 per cent for the finishing process, for around 28 per cent for both processing the raw materials and burning the clinker, and for less than 5 per cent for other operations.

“An area where energy is majorly consumed is the grinding stage of cement manufacturing. Here is where there is a large scope of reduction of the same. The industry has worked upon the same and come up with solutions to make that happen. At one point of time, cement grinding used to take up to 50 units to 60 units of power. With the new, energy efficient mills we are able to grind clinker while using 20 units to 25 units of energy and this is a major benefit that the industry has been able to derive of the vertical roller mills or the pre-pressed grinding mills,” says Jamshed Cooper, Managing Director, HeidelbergCement India Ltd. and Zuari Cement Ltd.

“With the use of EFR and alternative fuels also the industry can save on energy. These are not directly energy efficient. Yes, the quantum of heat generation requirement for the clinkerisation process will be the same, but that can be substituted with alternative sources. Also, recycling the waste heat with the Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) unit is also a great way to save energy and use it for further processes,” he adds.

Automation and Technology
The world is moving towards digitalisation. From switching on your home lights to a manufacturing unit, the controls are moving from human to digital across the board. Technological advancement in the area of cement manufacturing has led to a lot of advancement in its functioning and has led towards achieving the goal of energy conservation by reducing its usage in the operations.

“The role of automation in the cement industry is very high. If we look back, the cement plants in the later part of 1970 or early 1980s used to have local substations or local control systems. But today with automation, plants are operated and controlled from a single location (CCR). The control room operator can see the entire plant operation from a single monitor. Functions like start or stop, alarms, process interlocks etc., are major benefits of automation that a cement plant experiences” says Kiran Patil, Managing Director, Wonder Cement.

“Furthermore, industries have used robotics in the plant, and Wonder Cement is one of the cement plants to have robotics for quality control. In this digital world, we cannot be behind and so, we are working towards the implementation of digitalisation in operation and maintenance to get better efficiency” he adds.

The cement industry is realising the importance of process control and automation to achieve their goals of energy efficiency and for a trouble free continuous operation leading to improved productivity at optimal energy levels. Automation also takes care of optimal operation in mining and hence longer life of mines and consistent desired cement quality is assured. Instrumentation and control logic can also be used effectively for taking care of human and equipment safety and to monitor equipment health and implement preventive maintenance in the manufacturing facility.

Organisations are continuously analysing and seeking advanced technical equipment that help streamline their processes and align them with the goals of achieving a similar or higher productivity level with a lower amount of energy input. This not only saves on their costs and enhances profitability for the organisation but also helps achieve their sustainability targets by reducing direct or indirect emissions caused by the cement manufacturing unit’s energy requirement.

While the input of energy is optimised by technology and automation, audits support the need of constant monitoring of the performance of the units individually as well as on a group level. A dedicated professional, certified in the area of energy consumption is stationed at every unit with the key goal of monitoring everyday consumption. Audits play a key role in achieving this goal.

Energy management bodies like Centre for Mining, Environment, Plant Engineering and Operations (CME), under the National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCCBM), run programmes that offer technical services related to Energy Audits and WHR feasibility studies to cement plants of India.

Their services include energy audit studies in cement plants including captive power plants, management, monitoring and target setting, heat and gas balance studies, identification of potential for thermal and electrical energy savings and recommendations for remedial measures and Techno economic feasibility studies for waste heat recovery system (WHRS) in cement plants.

These audits are conducted by means of site visits and data collection, preliminary data analysis and detailed data analysis. Post which a detailed report and recommendations on economic viability is presented to the organisation in audit.

Hitesh Sukhwal, Dy General Manager – Environment, Udaipur Cement Works, says, “Our company is covered under PAT scheme. We are an ISO 50001 certified company under energy management. We have a dedicated resource under the designation of ‘energy manager,’ who is qualified to keep a check on the energy consumption of the plant and continuously optimise the same.” A periodic energy audit (once in three years) as per EC Act is done. Half yearly internal audits and external audits once a year are performed under energy management. Moreover, power monitoring reports are discussed on an everyday basis during the desktop production meeting” he adds.

Many cement producers have lowered energy costs up to 20 per cent by adopting a holistic approach to industrial energy management. The Petroleum Conservation Research Association lists some key areas where cement manufacturing units can work upon for having a more energy efficient plant:

Use improved insulating bricks/blocks in kilns and preheaters.Use energy efficient equipment like high efficiency fans, improved ball mill internals etc.

  • Recover waste heat from the preheater and use it for cogeneration of power.
  • Prevent idle running of equipment by providing The interlocking arrangement and operating with PLC system. Generate daily reports on idle running of equipment, also in terms of monetary losses.
  • Optimise the fuel mix and raw mix by including alternative fuels and supplementary cementitious materials.
  • Establish an efficient management information system for identifying various important parameters for efficient operation of the equipment and taking timely remedial measures.
  • Regularly monitor and calibrate flow metres.

Carry out regular audits.
Other areas that it focuses on apart from the main manufacturing process are the various overheads and other operations where energy is consumed in smaller quantities but when clubbed together can be a large value of consumption.

“The cement industry affects climate change as it contributes 7 per cent to 8 per cent to the global carbon pool. To curtail this, stakeholders that include members of the United Nations Principal of Responsible Investment and such have begun to reach out to cement industry players across the globe to come up with solutions to cut down on CO2 emissions to see investments flow in.” says Dr Arvind Bodhankar, Executive Director, ESG & CRO, Dalmia Bharat Limited.

“Dalmia Bharat are leading the pack with commitments that encourage the circular economy. Global visionaries such as our honourable Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, have also stated that India will become a carbon-neutral country by 2070 and committed to 520 GW of renewable energy by 2030.

This has helped ease new policies as far as renewable energy is concerned and enabled sector leaders such as us to stay the course to meet our goal of becoming carbon negative by 2040,” he adds.

Alternative sources of energy like solar power plants and Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) are also a key in achieving energy efficiency and sustainability goals for every cement organisation. UltraTech has imbibed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a business objective and is working towards reducing its energy consumption and carbon emissions. It was one of the first in the Indian cement industry to embrace the technology of WHRS. Waste heat recovery has proved to be an inexpensive energy source in addition to moderating the carbon footprint.

This has enhanced energy security (accounting for 20 per cent of power needs) for the company. UltraTech Cement has an aggregate capacity of about 59 MW in waste heat recovery systems.

In a report published at SAUR Energy International, May 2022, a major issue in the cement industry is the very high particulate matter (PM) emissions from production processes. The pollutants commonly emitted by cement plants are dust or particulate matter, NOx, SOx, carbon oxides and methane and others. Energy consumption is also an issue, with the approximate required per tonne of cement, roughly two thirds of which is used for particle size reduction.

About 65 per cent of the total electrical energy used in a cement plant is utilised for the grinding of coal, raw materials and clinker.

Some of the key players are adaption to alternative sources of energy. Ultratech Cement has a power generation capacity of 156 MW through waste heat recovery systems. The waste heat recovery capacity is expected to reach 302 MW by FY2024. In the area of renewable energy, the firm professes plans to invest in solar power generation for captive usage.

This is in addition to existing contract capacity of 148 MW renewable energy plants. UltraTech is committed to increase the share of green energy in its electricity mix to 34 per cent by 2024 from the current level of 13 per cent.

Utilising its waste heat recovery plants, and solar and wind power plants, Shree Cement boasts a renewable energy portfolio of over 234 MW. Consequently, during FY 2019-20, 45 per cent of the total energy needs of the company was fulfilled by renewable energy. The firm has a 62 kW Solar PV Power Plant at Beawar.

In 2021, Ambuja Cement and ACC announced investments in Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) across six sites in India to reduce 5.61 lakhs tons of CO2 emissions per year. ACC committed to reducing scope 1 GHG emissions by 21.3 per cent per tonne of cementitious material and scope 2 GHG emissions by 21.3 per cent per tonne of cementitious material by 2030.

Dalmia Bharat’s carbon footprint is 40 per cent lower than the global average for a cement company which places it at the top, globally in the race of decarbonising the cement sector. Dalmia Cement has been progressively producing cement with ‘greener’ alternatives.

Energy is key to the cement sector, however, the time has come to re-look at the conventional sources and to tap into the more readily available alternative sources of energy. With advancement of technology and automation across the globe, there are various equipment and machinery that make these alternative sources more effective and affordable for the cement manufacturers. It is a conscious choice that the industry shall have to make to safeguard the environment for the future generations to come in terms of availability of energy sources and the quality of surroundings they leave behind.

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Concrete

Precast use of concrete promotes sustainability

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Vijay Shah, Managing Partner, India Precast, advocates the use of precast concrete as he puts forth details about its manufacturing, uses and methods while emphasising the sustainability of the product.

Explain the process of casting concrete in shapes and what is the grade of concrete used for making these shapes?
Precast casting concrete elements are manufactured with the required steel reinforcement either in formwork, moulds or on steel plates with side shuttering etc. The concrete cast is made at a different location and is then transported to the site. Precast elements are made of minimum M20 to M50 grade of concrete.

What is the difference between precast and cast in-situ as uses of concrete?

  • The use of concrete in the precast method and the cast in-situ method differs widely based on many factors.
  • Precast concrete shapes are cast at a different location and are then transported to the site where construction work takes place while with the cast in-situ process, concrete is poured on-site.
  • Curing of precast concrete is fast as it takes place under ideal and controlled conditions while the cast in-situ concrete takes relatively longer to get cured but can be easily used for two-way structural systems.
  • For the precast concrete, the process is easy to do and is repeatable as the same moulds or framework can be used. This increases the value of construction and derives more value
  • while cast in-situ adapts building shapes and post tensioning.
  • The work and rework in the usage of precast shapes is less, thus, reduces cost at the site
  • while with the cast in-situ method there is a requirement of space allotment for concrete mix and necessary add-ins, that is added cost for the construction job.

Tell us about prestressed and reinforced concrete.
Prestressed concrete is a combination of high strength concrete and tensioned steel strands. This combination makes a strong structural unit that is useful in building roof slabs, bridge girders etc. Reinforced concrete is manufactured from a combination of high strength concrete and normal reinforcement bars.

Tell us more about the precast elements manufactured, their shapes and sizes.
Precast is one of the best ways to rapidly build industrial buildings, commercial buildings, affordable housing, mass, EWS, LIG housing, schools, hospitals, public buildings, agriculture railways, stadiums, sport centres, parking, bridges, airports etc. They have a higher productivity and quality set at industry level.
Various types of precast elements manufactures are:

  • Solid load bearing floor slabs, load bearing walls, facades, sandwich wall panels and cladding panels
  • Floor and roof slabs are made from prestressed load bearing hollow core concrete slab and ribbed slabs. They are also made from half floor slab or semi-finished floor slab with a lattice girder
  • Precast stair cases, balcony, toilet pods, lift shafts, water tanks
  • Prestressed lintel, frames, beams, columns and double-tee beams
  • Internal partition walls are made with light-weight hollow core wall panels instead of AAC blocks or bricks
  • Boundary walls, fencing poles, U-drainage or trenches, box culvert etc.

What is hollowcore concrete flooring and what is its lifespan?
Hollowcore slabs are precast, prestressed concrete elements that are generally used for flooring. Some of the advantages of using these flooring are longer lifespans and no propping, flexibility in designs, faster construction, lightweight structures, fire resistant structures, high load capacities and units manufactured specific to the project.
The maximum span of hollowcore floors will depend on the floor depth and the specific loadings imposed on the floor.

What are the quality standards followed while making precast shapes for any project?
Quality control is a very important aspect in the process of making precast concrete shapes. It is imperative to make precast shapes as per the exact requirement provided by the engineers and the construction party. To maintain the quality of product from our end,

  • We ensure there are quality control systems and procedures in place along with a quality assurance plan. Our programme consists of tests, trials, and general procedures for acceptance.
  • There is a laboratory and related facilities, which are required for the selection and control of the quality of materials and workmanship. The central quality laboratory is used for various quality control tests like cube test, workability test, slump test, sieve analysis etc. The materials used for making the final precast shapes also has to be shared for testing to various third-party laboratories with an advance intimation.
  • All the necessary tests are carried out in respective batching plants or sites depending on the use of concrete at our facility.
  • Documentation for all the tests conducted and their reports is maintained in records, for references and submission to the relevant authorities and the users of the same.

As precast use of concrete is conducted in a dedicated space and is in a monitored environment, it becomes easier to maintain high quality due to its repeatability factor. The necessary general precast machinery and moulds, steel tables, concrete batching and dispensing equipment, vibrating and finishing equipment and dedicated labour team help maintain the higher quality standards as compared to cast in-situ use of concrete.

How do you incorporate sustainability in the process of precasting?
Precast use of concrete promotes sustainability with its repeatability factor. There’s more planning involved in the process and equipment like the moulds, vibrating machine, finishing machine are all reusable elements of the process.
As mentioned, there is planning in precast use of concrete where only the required measure of concrete is mixed and poured into moulds that are made to precision as per the requirement of the project. The quantity is also previously defined, which means there is reduced to zero wastage of material.
This waste reduction leads to lesser needs of cleaning and clearing equipment, which may further be fueled by other energy sources. Thus, precast concrete, by large, is a sustainable means of building.

What are the advantages of using precast concrete?
There are multiple advantages of using a precast structure for any project like cost efficiency, speed, versatility, safety, sustainability and beauty.
This includes:

  • The use of precast improves the quality and lifespan of any building
  • It reduces the time of building, thus reducing the costs involved for all the other equipment and labour that goes in to the project, thus, proving to be cost effective
  • The maintenance of a precast is lower due to its high quality and durability that is ensured while it is cast
  • This method of using concrete is a sustainable option due to its repeatability

What are the major challenges you face in the process of making precast shapes and in their transportation?
The precast industry plays on volume and repetition. This is one of the major challenges as well.
The requirement of having to repeat the process
that contains a large volume of mixed concrete and getting the same perfection in the shapes is a cumbersome process.
The initial investment in setting up the precast plant and acquiring all equipment and moulds is high. With bulk shapes to be transported from one place to another and the requirement for site space and handling, this time of concrete use is more suitable for tier 2 and tier 3 cities.

How do precast elements or shapes help in the profitability of a construction activity?
As precast concrete is made at a different location than the construction site, the other jobs keep going on at the site and then the precast shapes are placed there. This reduces construction time to up to one-third to one-fifth as compared to cast in-situ concrete, thus, reducing cost of the construction.
Construction maintenance is reduced as the quality of their precast structures are monitored and carefully administered at the plant level. This means it adds to the reliability, durability, accuracy, and ability to produce architectural elements in any building adding to its quality and strength. Precast also provides insulation, thermal inertia and fire resistance and the possibility of integration with MEP (Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing) from the start of the project.

How can precast concrete contribute towards affordable mass housing in India?
Defined shapes and technical requirements in precast concrete helps reduce the waste and increase the repeatability factor, thus, reduces the cost and time for any construction or building project. Higher control on quality, less time consumer leads to lesser need of labour and equipment on-site, which also adds to the profitability of the structure.
All factors combined bring down the overall cost of the project, leading to that benefit translating to the end consumer and bringing a surge of affordable mass housing in India.

-Kanika Mathur

Comparison Between Cast-in-situ (conventional method) versus Technology Drive Precast

Sr. No Criteria Conventional Construction Precast Construction 3D Modular/ Panel & Hollow Core Slab.
1 Natural resource consumption High 30 per cent saving
2 Labour Problem Heavy labour problem while work in progress Less labour required
3 Dependability on skilled labor 60 per cent Dependability
4 Time consuming Verv High Fast track
5 Initial investment Low High
6 Finishin Normal Excellent
7 Quality production Poor Excellent as factory based.
8 Material wastage High Least
9 Speed/ Productivity Low Excellent
10 Strength Good Excellent
11 Durability Low High
12 Structure weight/ Deed load Very heavy Reduced
13 Brick Block and Plastering Required No Need
14 Service like Electrical, plumbing & sanitary Break, Provide & Re-build Pre-embedded

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Concrete

The age of concrete blocks can be up to a 100 years

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Nikita George, Director Operations, APCO Concrete Blocks and Allied Products, takes us through the manufacturing process of concrete blocks and its composition and also specifically discusses their patented product – cellular blocks.

Tell us about the type of concrete blocks that your organisation manufactures.
We manufacture mainly solid and cellular concrete blocks. The cellular block is our patented product, which has become increasingly popular due to its high utility value in the construction process. We are also gearing up to launch our new line of pavers and kerb stones by the end of August.

What is the composition of each type of block and what are their strengths?
Blocks constitute of mainly three items:
Cement,

  • Manufactured Sand and Stone Aggregates Our patented cellular blocks have a vast set of benefits:
  • Lightweight: The cellular block is between 8 to 9 kg lighter than the solid block. This not only increases the productivity of the labour but also helps in reducing the overall steel requirement for the project.
  • Thermal insulation properties: With the erratic weather conditions in India today, cellular blocks help in maintaining thermal insulation properties within the building. In a recent experiment conducted on a building, which used the cellular blocks, a marked reduction in temperature by three degrees was recorded.
  • Sound insulation properties: Due to the hollow nature of these concrete blocks, the product is able to cut the decibel levels by 14 per cent.
  • Compressive strength and water absorption properties: The cellular blocks exceed the ISO parameters for compressive strength and water absorption.

How do you ensure quality standards for the concrete blocks manufactured?
With our 50 years of experience in the concrete blocks manufacturing industry, we have continually evolved and tried our best to stay relevant with the international quality standards. Quality control begins with procurement of good quality raw material. Fortunately, we have our own crushers to cater to our production units. This helps us negate undesirable raw materials. State of the art machinery and a strong base of SOP help mitigate errors. Above all, of these we have a skilled set of managers who have over 25 years of experience in the concrete blocks field.

Tell us about the sustainability and environmental benefit while manufacturing and while using these blocks in construction?
The blocks that we manufacture follow the highest quality parameters that give a very long life span. When used in building, the age of concrete blocks can be up to 100 years. The blocks used in these buildings at the time of demolition can be re-crushed and used to manufacture the same product again. And since concrete blocks are one of the strongest products available in the market, the on site damages are virtually zero. Unlike native methods of concrete production, we use only M-sand. There is no usage of river sand hence, safeguarding our environment. Also, as mentioned before, concrete blocks can be reused even after the lifespan of a building. This cuts down on further usage of raw materials.

What are the key benefits that any builder can get from using your concrete blocks?
The concrete blocks industry to a large extent can still be categorised in the unorganised sector. Due to this, there is a lot of disparity in pricing and quality in the market. At APCO, with our 50 years of experience, we have won the trust of our customers by consistently proving the highest quality of our products and on-time delivery.
With our 5 production units strategically located around Bangalore city, we have the capability of producing up to one lakh blocks per day. This allows us to consistently supply large quantities to our customers. Our customers can also be assured that the quantity of blocks that leave our plants is the same quantity that will be unloaded at the site.
Apart from this as mentioned in the earlier answers, our cellular blocks host a wide range of benefits during and even after the construction of a building.

How do these concrete blocks contribute to the profitability of construction?
When APCO came into the market in the early ’70s, the construction industry was heavily reliant on the traditional clay bricks. It took us about 10 years before we got our first big break. And since then, the construction market has not looked back. There have been multiple competitors in the walling solutions market but in terms of pricing and quality no other product comes close. Most people build a house once. At APCO, we believe in making that house a home. We provide unrivalled quality and a fair price to all our customers!

What does the near future hold for APCO Concrete Blocks and allied products?
We will be launching our new product line of pavers and kerb stones by August and we are working towards APCO being present in a few more states around India.

Kanika Mathur

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Concrete

Effects of Macronomics

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In any industry, it always helps to take into account the macro perspective as it aids one in navigating the broader economic trends. As per the assessments of the April-June quarter (Q1), India’s gross domestic product (GDP) increased 13.5 per cent, which was lower than RBI’s estimated 16.2 per cent. A fiscal deficit of Rs 3.41 trillion was noted during the April-July period this financial year.


Moody’s Investors Service has revised India’s economic growth projection for 2022 to a reduced 7.7 per cent. The downward revision is due to rising interest rates, an uneven monsoon and global demand slowdown, which is not surprising as the Russia-Ukraine war continues to cast its shadow. The eight core infrastructure sectors, including cement, slowed down to 4.5 per cent in July, which afforded the service sector to shine in the first quarter.


Taking a bird’s eye view of the cement sector, the upward moving trends are looking promising and that has kept optimism buoyed amongst the players. Monsoon is a tricky time for the cement industry as construction takes a backseat and price fluctuations in cement are rife.

As per Kotak Institutional Equities report, cement prices have declined about a percent sequentially in the second quarter. Cement price was recorded at Rs 384 per 50 kg bag in August pan-India. In spite of a sluggish season, the demand is likely to soar in the coming months, and the key players in the industry are anticipating robust growth.


There is a lot that’s underway for cement manufacturers in terms of alternative raw materials, energy efficiency and eco-friendly processes. Given the infrastructure and construction boom that India is witnessing today, the cement segment is likely to perform well. However, the challenges that the sector faces are unique to it, and it remains to be seen how cement brands will innovate to overcome them.

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