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Can demand catch up with capacity expansion?

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India, the second largest producer of cement, is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The country ranks next only to China in cement production with a total capacity of 280 million tonne per annum (mtpa). The Indian cement industry is on a roll, driven by a booming housing sector, and increased activity in infrastructure development like roads, ports and bridges. It has outpaced itself, ramping up production capacity, attracting the top global cement companies to spark off a spate of mergers and acquisitions. The government’s continued thrust on infrastructure and the 12th Five-Year Plan coming up with doubling of allocation to infrastructure will expedite the booming cement sector. An analysis by A Mohankumar.Twenty years have passed, since the industry was de-licensed in 1991-92, and the cement capacity has increased six times, close to 300 mt. During this 20-year period, the industry has flourished, on government’s continuous use of cements for infrastructure development, construction of roads and ports and the boom in real estate also saw the industry scaling new heights. The main consumer of cement is the housing sector, which contributes to almost 60 per cent of cement sale. The last 20 years the industry has witnessed spate of mergers and acquisitions Vicat SA acquiring stake in Hyderabad-based Sagar Cement, Holcim increasing its hold on Ambuja Cement and increasing its stake in ACC Cement, Italcementi Group acquired KK Birla promoted Zuari Industries’ cement business, the the French cement major Lafarge acquired the cement plants of Raymond and Tisco. There were also major consolidations like India Cement taking over Raasi Cement and Sri Vishnu Cement; and Grasim acquiring the cement business of L&T, Indian Rayon’s cement division, and Sri Digvijay Cements.2011 and beyond-Capacity expansion projects lined upDalmia Bharat Enterprises plans to invest $554.32 mn to set up two greenfield cement plants in Karnataka and Meghalaya.Bharathi Cement plans to double its production capacity by expanding its plant in Andhra Pradesh, with an investment of $149.97 mn.Madras Cements plans to invest $178.4 mn to increase the manufacturing capacity of its Ariyalur plant in Tamil Nadu to 4.5 mt from 2 mt.My Home Industries plans to increase cement production capacity from the existing 5 mtpa to 15 mtpa at a cost of $1 bn.Shree Cement plans to invest $97.13 mn to set up a 1.5 mn mt clinker and grinding unit in Rajasthan. The company will also set up a cement manufacturing unit and power plant in Karnataka with a total investment of $423.6 million.Jaiprakash Associates plans to invest $640 mn to increase its cement capacity.Swiss cement company Holcim plans to invest $ 1 bn in setting up two to three greenfield manufacturing plants in India in the next five years to serve the rising domestic demand. Anjani Portland Cement wll invest Rs 350 crore on a cement plant in Karnataka, which will increase the total cement production capacity to 2.2 mtpa.JK Cement will increase its grey cement capacity by 2.2 mt and will set up 5,000 tonne per day (tpd) production capacity in Mangrol, Rajasthan.Gujarat plans to triple its cement production capacity in 3-5 years. These are the major projects which will add to the existing cement capacities. In India, it has been noticed that growth in cement consumption is in correlation to the growth in gross domestic product (GDP), irrespective of its sectoral composition. Based on an expected GDP growth of 7-8 per cent over the next decade, conservative estimates place a cement consumption growth of 9-10 per cent over the same period.Demand drivers: The majors factors that will act as a propeller for demand will be the buoyant real estate market and housing sector, increased infrastructure spending, through various governmental programmes like Indiramma Housing Scheme, Kalaignar Housing Scheme, low-cost housing in urban and rural areas under schemes like Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) and Indira Aawas Yojana. The other factors that will add to the growth will be the accelerating rate of urbanisation, easy availability of housing credit, tax benefits for house building and purchasing, etc.Obstacles: The first major constraint will be availability of land. Over the years, land prices have increased astronomically. Cement plants are primarily located where raw material is available in abundance, there are good infrastructure facilities, and logistics to reach the market. Despite India being a very large country, the dwindling number of locations that meet acceptable standards for this criteria, and the large number of small private land holdings involved, makes land acquisition, for future greenfield units, an increasingly cumbersome and time-consuming pre-project activity. The next in order is the fuel. Coal being the primary fuel, is fast depleting. A shortage of 200 mn is estimated. To meet the shortfal, India has to import coal from Indonesia, South Africa, China, Australia and Russia. The advantages of imported coal are its relatively high calorific value, low ash content, low moisture and the availability of credit at international rates. The other alternative to coal can be gas. Gas as a principal fuel, has been rarely used. A two mt pa cement plant is estimated to require about 4 mmscmd (mio standard m3/day) of gas. With new gas discoveries in the Krishna Godavari basin (in the order of 5 trillion standard m3/day), it is foreseen that at least some cement plants in the southern states switching over to gas. Due to the worsening power situation in the country, cement plants are increasingly relying on captive generation to meet their entire power needs. Wind power has been used in some southern plants, tidal power is also under consideration by cement companies.Poor water management is a cause of concern. The industry currently uses approximately 61 mn m3 of water, annually. Despite selecting water-conserving plant equipment, the industry’s requirement for water is expected to grow. The industry usually depends on natural water bodies and groundwater and in some places RO based desalination plants have been installed. Recyling of water can also help to a certain extend.Logistic is a major deterrent. The transport of cement is mainly through railways and roadways. The bulk of the transport both inbound and outbound, accounts for almost 50 per cent of the cost of delivered cement. For cement dispatches, railway is a preferred mode of transport. A rise in freight charges, increases the price of cement and it is passed to the end user. Likewise, rise in petroleum or diesel, increases the price. To conserve transport costs and improve delivery time, split locating grinding capacity, proximate to blending material sources and markets, and creation of bulk terminals at coastal locations, would become more common.Capacity expansion vs raw materialThe main raw materials used in the cement manufacturing process are limestone, sand, shale, clay, and iron ore. The main material, limestone, is usually mined on site while the other minor materials may be mined either on site or in nearby quarries. For manufacturing 1 tonne of cement, a quantity of 1.5 tonne of limestone is required. The cement grade limestone available in India is approximately 15 bn tonne. India is endowed with large deposits of limestone, however given the expected industry growth rate and its current utilisation pattern of limestone. There is a possibility of limestone being fully consumed. This can be curtailed to some extent by scouting and exploration of new deposits; active exploration of the use of calcareous industrial waste as a substitute for limestone and conversion of the industry’s product mix to 100 per cent blended cement will add few more years.Pozzolanic and slag are the two main blending materials. Flyash, India’s primary source of pozzolana is mainly derived from thermal power plants (TPPs). TPPs currently generate about 100 mtpa of flyash, out of which 21 mt is used by the cement industry. Other than flyash, laboratory trials have shown alternate pozzolanic materials such as rice husk, bamboo dust, calcined clay, etc, to have acceptable cementitious properties. After flyash, slag, produced as a waste material by steel plants, is the next most popular blending material. Against a expected availability of 17 mtpa, the usage is 10 mt. Due to the pressing need to dispose slag, there are recent moves by steel producers to enter the cement industry, either through a joint venture with an existing cement player, or independently.EnvironmentCapacity expansion will depend mostly on environment clearance. Cement industry is the major contributor to CO2 emissions. Recently there was news about lower agricultural produce due to cement plants in the vicinity. In future, there would be an increasing demand for environmental clearance. The operations would be dominated by environmental considerations with issues such as more demanding emission levels, conservation of scarce natural resources, lower human dependency, etc. The industry causes environmental impacts at all stages of the process. These include emissions of airborne pollution in the form of dust, gases, noise and vibration when operating machinery and during blasting in quarries. Environmental norms are likely to get more stringent. Greenhouse gas emission in India, at a per capita level, is far lesser than the permissible limit allowed under the Kyoto protocol; hence, India, is exempted from the framework of the treaty.Equipment to reduce dust emissions during quarrying and manufacture of cement is widely used, and equipment to trap and separate exhaust gases are coming up in a big way. Environmental protection also includes the re-integration of quarries into the countryside after they have been closed down by returning them to nature or re-cultivating them. Technology development and acquisition would need to keep pace, eg, lowering of dust emission norms, from 50 mg/Nm3 to 10 mg/Nm3 may result in the increased adoption of hybrid filters; the pressure to reduce CO2 emission could unleash a variety of clean technologies and practices such as cogeneration of power using waste heat, incineration in cement kilns of waste materials to meet the dual objectives of waste disposal and cost reduction, separation of CO2 from kiln exhaust gas and its utilisation in value products, etc.Alterative fuelsCement companies are looking for an alternative to coal. In many plants in Gujarat, Rajasthan and south India, companies mainly use pet coke, imported coal and lignite. Lignite being a poor cousin, the use of lignite in the times ahead would remain restricted, mainly on account of its low calorific value and difficulties in storage. The next alternative to coal is pet coke. Pet coke is a by-product obtained during refining of heavy crude oil. Pet coke is characterised as high grade fuel with a high calorific value of more than 8,000 Kcal per kg, having low ash content and low volatile matter but high sulphur content as up to 7 per cent. Due to higher calorific value compared to coal, less quantity of pet coke needs to be moved from source to plant site, which reduces the cost of transport.The increase in capacity would be better if there is increasing use of surface miners. The utilisation of marginal grade limestone by employing flotation processes to reduce silica and adding calcareous industrial waste for enriching lime and improved drilling and blasting operations through better drilling geometry and explosive technology will help improve the capacity. Availability of larger crushers capable of handling 1.9 x 1.9 m boulder sizes; throughputs exceeding 2,000 tph for a product size of 75 mm which is technologically advanced, and raw grinding system will be an added advantage. For raw grinding adoption of larger and more energy efficient vertical roller mills with longer roller, table lives and improved material bed development should be adopted.Other areas of plant technology and operation, that could see significant changes, include: automation, instrumentation & plant control systems aimed at reducing human intervention, automated maintenance (eg lubrication) and better process measurement and control. This includes new technologies such as intelligent MCCs, serial bus architecture, satellite communications, etc. There would also be a requirement for material handling systems targeted towards achieving higher capacity, smaller area requirements and lower wear rates.Packing and despatch: To meet increased demands, increased adoption of 240 tph, twin discharge, 16 spout packers are likely; to address variable market demands and despatch modes, flexibility in the despatch section would need to be significantly enhanced through appropriate automation.ManpowerWith increase in capacity, there would be increase in plant and equipment sizes, higher levels of automation, and an additional headcount of 14,000-15,000 by the end of 2015. The industry would see diminishing export demands for cements in neighbouring and MENA countries. because of the increase in capacities in MENA countries and large discoveries of limestone. There would be less demand for cement from the neighbouring countries as it would be far more economical for them to export it from other cement rich countries, since cement from India is high due to high cost of raw material, fuels and taxes.ConclusionThe demand for cement is expected to grow at 9-10 per cent per annum. Industry leaders and regional players will spearhead the country’s expansions. Many foreign players are also likely to enter the market as the industry would require enormous amount to finance the projects. In the coming years, there would be major consolidation in the market, in the form of mergers and acquisitions, or a joint venture or major expansion by regional players. Many players would compete for a pan-India presence. The industry would also see improvement in machinery and equipment, and would streamline their production for better results. Capacity addition will also put pressures on input resources like land, limestone, fuel and manpower. Industry would thus compete, not only in the market, but also in attaining strategic control over input resources.The cement industry usually follows a cycle. It starts when demand for cement picks up and companies start enjoying high margins and growth. As the business is lucrative, additional cement capacity comes up both from the incumbents and the new players. However, the capacity addition outpaces demand, and the cement manufacturer starts losing pricing power, resulting in lower profitability. Thereafter, the capacity addition slows down until the demand catches up, and this completes one cycle.However, the current cycle has boosters from a strong economy both from demand for infrastructure and housing and from supply due to increased investment capacity. The current year will therefore see a challanging economic balance.

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Concrete

Filtration can help to control climate change

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Niranjan Kirloskar, Managing Director, Fleetguard Filters, elaborates on the importance of filtration and its profound impact on efficiency, longevity and environmental sustainability.

Tell us about the core principle of filtration.
Filtration is segregation/separation of matter by density, colour, particle size, material property etc. Filtration is of four basic types:

  • Separation of solids from gas
  • Separation of solids from liquids
  • Separation of liquids from liquids
  • Separation of Solids from solids.

As applied to engines/equipment, the main objective of filtration is to purify the impurities and provide the desired fluid or air for enhanced engine/equipment performance in turn optimising their performance and life.

Can better filtration bring productivity to the work process? How?
Better filtration can improve the quality of application performance in multiple ways. Filtration improves engine performance as it filters and prevents dirt, dust, and debris from entering into the engine. This ensures that the quality of air or fluid that reaches the combustion chamber is as per the specific requirements of optimal performance of the engine. It also extends engine life by filtering out contaminants. Efficient filtration ensures optimal performance of the engine/equipment over its entire operating life. Filtration also improves fuel efficiency as a clean filter allows for a better air-fuel mixture in the engine, thus improving combustion efficiency, which in turn results in better fuel economy. It keeps emissions under control as fuels burn more efficiently leading to lesser harmful residue in the environment. Thus, to sum up, an optimal filtration solution ensures better performance, prolonged engine life and less hazardous waste in the environment.

What is the role of technology in the process of filtration?
Innovation, research and development as well as technology play a pivotal role in catering to the ever-evolving environmental norms and growing market demands. At FFPL we have NABL Accredited labs for testing, we have ALD Labs for design, and a team of R&D experts constantly working on providing advanced solutions to cater to the evolving market needs. We have robust systems and advanced technologies that make high-quality, high-precision products. Our state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities use advanced technologies, automation, robotics and also Industry 4.0 as applicable to provide the best products to our customers. To ensure each product delivered to market is of utmost precision, advanced quality equipment such as CMM, scanning systems and automated inspection technologies for real-time monitoring and quality control during the manufacturing of filtration systems and to comply with standard quality requirements are used.

Tell us about the impact of good filtration on health and the environment.
Good filtration of equipment is to the environment what a good respiratory system is to the body. There are various benefits of an efficient air filtration system as it improves the air quality by ensuring optimum combustion of fuel thereby reducing/controlling emissions to the environment. Efficient lube filtration ensures low wear and tear of the engine thereby extending life of the engines and maintaining optimal performance over the entire operating life of the engine. Efficient fuel filtration ensures low wear and tear of expensive and sensitive fuel injection thereby ensuring perfect fuel metering resulting in best fuel efficiency and saving of precious natural resources. This efficient filtration can help to control climate change as it reduces the carbon footprint due to combustion in the environment.

Can your products be customised and integrated with other machinery?
Fleetguard Filters have been known as a leading solutions provider for decades. With relevant experience and close customer relations, we understand the market/applications requirements and develop solutions to address the pressing technical challenges our customers face concerning filtration solutions. Filters can be customised in terms of size, shape and configuration to fit specific requirements. Customised filters can be designed to meet critical performance requirements. Filtration systems can be designed to integrate seamlessly with any auto and non-auto application requirements.

What are the major challenges in filtration solutions?
Major challenges faced in filtration solutions are:

  • With every emission regulation change, filtration requirements also keep changing.
  • Engines are being upgraded for higher power ratings.
  • Space for mounting filtration solutions on vehicles/equipment is shrinking.
  • For fuel injection systems, the water separation efficiencies are becoming more and more stringent, so are particle separation efficiencies.
  • Due to next level filtration technologies,filtration systems and filter elements are becoming expensive, thereby increasing TCO for customers.
  • Customers prefer higher uptimes and longer service intervals to ensure lower maintenance and operating costs.

We, at Fleetguard, strive continuously to ensure that all the pains experienced by our customers are addressed with the fit to market solutions. Balancing the cost of filtration solutions with their performance and durability can be challenging, especially where the requirements of high filtration standards are required. Also, wrong disposal methods for used filters can have environmental impact.

  • Kanika Mathur

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Concrete

Rajasthan gets a water harvesting project

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Prince Pipes and Fittings Limited, in partnership with Ambuja Foundation, has launched a comprehensive water harvesting project in Chomu district of Rajasthan as part of its CSR initiative. The project aims to address water scarcity and enhance community resilience against water-related challenges. Ambuja Foundation will focus on setting up over 50 rooftop rain rainwater harvesting systems to provide a reliable source of water for 250 people. Additionally, efforts will be made to revive 2 village ponds, creating 10,000 cubic meters of water storage capacity, and to rejuvenate groundwater by implementing check dams, farm ponds and farm bunding. The project also includes educating the local community on water conservation techniques and promoting conscious water usage. This initiative seeks to support farmers through the government’s subsidies to install sprinkle irrigation systems at a minimal cost, while also contributing to livestock strengthening and promoting community ownership.

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Concrete

Innovations in Sustainability

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Dr SB Hegde, Professor, Jain University, Bangalore, and Visiting Professor, Pennsylvania State University, USA, discusses how the cement sector is battling substantial carbon emissions and resource depletion, and embracing advanced technologies to mitigate its environmental impact.

In the relentless pursuit of urbanisation and infrastructure development, the cement industry finds itself at a pivotal intersection of ambition and responsibility. This foundational sector has long been synonymous with progress and growth, providing the bedrock for modern cities and industries. Yet, beneath its seemingly unyielding façade lies a profound challenge – the environmental footprint it leaves behind. Cement production, for its high carbon emissions and resource consumption, is now compelled to rewrite its narrative. The cement industry needs to become more sustainable using advanced technology. In this article, we will explore the world of cement production and discover new solutions that can change its future.

Considering traditional cement production is a major emitter of CO2, accounting for around 8 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. It consumes a vast amount of limestone, a finite resource, and contributes to deforestation and habitat destruction in limestone-rich regions.

Supplementary cement materials (SCMs) and creative ideas like Calcined Clay Clinker (LC3) are making a big difference. These different materials are transforming the way things are done. For example, in India, where the cement industry is one of the largest carbon emitters, LC3 technology, which incorporates calcined clays into cement, has been demonstrated to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 30 per cent and substantially decrease energy consumption during the clinker production process. By 2050, it is estimated that the implementation of such alternative materials could help the cement sector reduce its global CO2 emissions by up to 16 per cent.

The cement industry because of its energy-intensive processes, consuming approximately 5 per cent of the world’s total energy and contributing significantly to greenhouse gas emissions.

Waste heat recovery systems, a pivotal technology, are setting an example for sustainability. A case study from a cement plant in Germany showed that waste Innovations in Sustainability Dr SB Hegde, Professor, Jain University, Bangalore, and Visiting Professor, Pennsylvania State University, USA, discusses how the cement sector is battling substantial carbon emissions and resource depletion, and embracing advanced technologies to mitigate its environmental impact. heat recovery reduced energy consumption by approximately 20 per cent and cut CO2 emissions by 1.6 million tons annually. This not only demonstrates the environmental benefits but also underscores the economic advantages of such innovations.

Furthermore, the industry is adopting alternative fuels, often derived from waste materials. Lafarge Holcim, one of the world’s largest cement producers now utilizes alternative fuels in 37 per cent of its cement plants. This has resulted in an estimated reduction of 2.2 million tonnes of CO2 emissions annually, showcasing the transformative potential of sustainable fuel sources.

The electrification of kiln systems is a transformative step towards sustainability. While the shift to electrification is in its nascent stages, there are promising examples. Heidelberg Cement, a global leader in building materials, has set ambitious targets to electrify its cement production processes. By leveraging renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, the company aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 30 per cent within the next decade. These concrete numbers underscore the industry’s commitment to low-carbon electrification.

Hybrid and flash calcination technologies offer compelling statistics as well. For instance, a pilot project using flash calcination technology in the Netherlands yielded a 25 per cent reduction in CO2 emissions compared to traditional rotary kilns. These numbers highlight the potential of disruptive technologies to reshape the cement industry.

This article is like a clear road map with real examples, explaining how the cement industry is becoming greener and more sustainable. By using technology, the cement industry wants to find a balance between moving forward and taking care of the environment. It’s showing how an industry can change to become more sustainable, strong and responsible for the future.

CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES


1. Alternative raw materials: The cement industry’s traditional reliance on limestone as a raw material is undergoing a transformation. The incorporation of alternative materials like fly ash, slag or pozzolans is a sustainable approach. For example, the use of fly ash in cement production can reduce CO2 emissions by up to 50 per cent compared to traditional Portland cement.

2. Energy efficiency: Improving energy efficiency is crucial. Waste heat recovery systems can significantly reduce energy consumption. For instance, waste heat recovery in cement plants can lead to a 20-30 per cent reduction in energy consumption.

3. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): CCS is a promising technology. In Norway, the Norcem Brevik cement plant has successfully demonstrated the capture of CO2 emissions, which are then transported and stored offshore. This technology can capture up to 400,000 tonnes of CO2 annually.

4. Use of alternative fuels: The shift towards alternative fuels can significantly reduce carbon emissions. For example, the use of alternative fuels in the European cement industry results in an average substitution rate of about 40 per cent of conventional fuels.

5. Blended cements: Blended cements, combining clinker with supplementary cementitious materials, can lead to lower emissions. For example, the use of slag and fly ash can reduce CO2 emissions by up to 40 per cent.

INNOVATION FOR THE FUTURE
1. Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU): CCU technology is still emerging, but it shows great potential. Innovations like carbon mineralisation can convert CO2 into stable mineral forms. Carbon Engineering, a Canadian company, is working on a direct air capture system that can capture one million tons of CO2 annually.

Feasible CCS technologies for the cement industry include:

a. Post-combustion capture: Capturing CO2 emissions after combustion during clinker production using solvents or adsorbents.
b. Pre-combustion capture: Capturing CO2 before combustion, often used with alternative fuels.
c. Oxy-fuel combustion: Burning fuel in an oxygenrich environment to facilitate CO2 capture.
d. Chemical looping combustion: Using metal oxides to capture CO2 during the calcination process.
e. Carbonation of alkaline residues: Capturing CO2 using alkaline residues from other industrial processes.
f. Integrated Carbon Capture and Storage (ICCS): Directly capturing CO2 from the cement production process.
g. Underground storage: Transporting and storing CO2 underground in geological formations.
h. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR): Injecting captured CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs.
i. Mineralisation: Converting CO2 into stable mineral forms for potential use or storage.

The cement industry can reduce emissions by adopting these technologies, but cost, energy, and infrastructure challenges must be addressed for widespread implementation. Collaboration among stakeholders is crucial for successful CCS integration.
2. Biomimicry in cement design: Researchers are exploring biomimetic materials inspired by nature. For example, a company called BioMason uses microorganisms to grow cement-like building materials, reducing energy use and emissions.
3. 3D printing of cement: 3D printing technology offers precise and efficient construction, reducing material waste. In a study, 3D-printed concrete structures used 40-70 per cent less material compared to traditional construction methods.
4. Blockchain for supply chain transparency: Blockchain technology ensures transparency and traceability. It is already being used in supply chains for various industries, including cement. By tracing the origin of raw materials and tracking production processes, it ensures sustainability compliance.

EVALUATING AND IMPLEMENTING SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES
1. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA): LCAs assess environmental impacts. For instance, a comparative LCA study found that geopolymer concrete (an alternative to traditional concrete) had 36 per cent lower carbon emissions compared to Portland cement.
2. Cost-benefit analysis: Considerations of initial investments and ongoing operational costs are paramount. Studies show that the implementation of waste heat recovery systems can pay back their initial costs in as little as two years, leading to long-term savings.
3. Regulatory compliance: Stricter emissions standards are being enforced globally. The European Union, for instance, has set ambitious emissions targets for the cement industry, mandating a 55 per cent reduction in CO2 emissions by 2030
4. Scalability: The scalability of technologies is critical for industry-wide adoption. Technologies like blended cements and waste heat recovery systems are already scalable, with global cement companies actively implementing them.
5. Stakeholder engagement: Engaging stakeholders is essential. For example, Holcim, a leading cement manufacturer, has partnered with NGOs and local communities to ensure sustainable practices and community involvement in their projects.

In conclusion, the cement industry is on a transformative path towards sustainability, driven by technological innovations. By embracing alternative raw materials, enhancing energy efficiency, and exploring cutting-edge solutions like carbon capture and utilization, the industry is reducing its environmental impact. The future holds even more promise, with biomimetic materials, 3D printing and blockchain enhancing sustainability.

Evaluating and implementing these technologies necessitates comprehensive assessments, cost-benefit analyses, regulatory compliance, scalability and stakeholder engagement. The industry’s commitment to sustainability not only addresses environmental concerns but also aligns with societal values and expectations, setting the stage for a greener and more responsible future for cement production.

REFERENCES:
1. NIST. (National Institute of Standards and Technology) Role of NIST in Sustainable Cements.
2. International Energy Agency. Cement Technology Roadmap 2018.
3. Gassnova. Longship – CO2 Capture, Transport, and Storage.
4. European Cement Association. Cembureau.
5. CSI. (Cement Sustainability Initiative) Slag Cement and Concrete.
6. Carbon Engineering. Direct Air Capture and Air To Fuels.
7. The University of New South Wales. Alternative Cement Discovery Set to Reduce Carbon Emissions.
8. BioMason. BioMason Technology.
9. NCCR Digital Fabrication. DFAB House Project.
10. IBM Blockchain. IBM Blockchain Solutions for Supply Chain.
11. ScienceDirect. Life Cycle Assessment of Geopolymer Concrete.
12. Energy.gov. Heat Recovery Technologies.
13. EU Climate Action. EU Climate Action: Climate Targets for Cement Industry.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR:


Dr SB Hegde is an industrial leader with expertise in cement plant operation and optimisation, plant commissioning, new cement plant establishment, etc. His industry knowledge cover manufacturing, product development, concrete technology and technical services.

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