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White Topping Technology – Urban Green Solutions



The concepts of "Sustainability" and "Sustainable development" are of much importance and receiving much attention from all walks of life as the causes of global warming and climate changes are debated world over. Concrete White topping Technology is sustainable because of its long life (over 30 years). Concrete overlay is in thinner section, hence consumes minimal raw materials, easy to construct. It requires minimum maintenance and rehabilitation over its lifetime. G Sreenivasa, General Manager – Business Development, UltraTech Cement, makes his case.What is White Topping and Why?

White topping is the covering of an existing asphalt pavement with a layer of Portland cement concreteUsing concrete overlays (against asphalt overlays) provide desirable life, performance against heavy loading & rain, offers safety, friction and skid resistance properties. In addition, concrete overlay offers cost effective and environmental benefits:

  • Non- rutting, ing surface that doesn’t trap water
  • Excellent surface drainage
  • Better light reflectance
  • Fewer repairs,- Fewer work-zone accidents over life of overlays
  • Comparable initial cost to asphalt
  • Lower ownership cost to asphalt (life cycle cost)
  • Cement is available locally where as bitumen has to be imported
  • Price of cement is consistent and predictable where as bitumen price is highly volatile.
  • Cement is available in plenty where as bitumen is scarce material in future.

The many advantages elaborated LongevityThe longevity of concrete roads & concrete overlays (or white topping) is well demonstrated and documented. In this context, the concrete paved Marine Drive in Mumbai is an outstanding example. The concrete pavement was done as far back as in 1939 and the road even now, 71 years later, is still giving satisfactory performance.Life cycle cost of concrete pavement against asphalt pavement

  • An asphalt road requires maintenance every 2 to 4 years and resurfacing every 8 to 10 years
  • The concrete road requires relatively very little maintenance. Depending upon usage, it may require some minor repairs to joints and surface texture, but won’t need to be resurfaced for 30, 40 or even 50 years.
  • Hence, the maintenance cost of concrete overlays is 1/8th to 1/10th of asphalt overlays results in smooth traffic flow over longer period.

Long life concrete overlays have demonstrated economic advantages in terms of life cycle costs (see picture). In addition, they contribute directly to the system’s sustainability in several important ways.Fuel saving (During its Lifecycle time)Properly designed, constructed, grooved, textured concrete overlays have much lesser pavement deflection, which results in reduced vehicle fuel consumption (see picture below). Fuel Consumption on Asphalt and Concrete Pavement (By CRRI & Dr Kadiyali associates) – After construction;The above table shows how the savings progressively increased as the vehicle weight increases. This is a very significant finding for Indian conditions where overloading is common. Hence concrete overlays are not only more capable of resisting heavy loads but also achieve fuel savings.Emission Reduction due to White topping;Assuming, a 10MT truck/bus travel 24000kms in urban areas per annum and (assume fuel consumption as 2.5kms/ltr) Fuel savings of 9.8 per cent (30.24cc/km) achieved on concrete overlay, Thus, total fuel saved in a year will be 800 litres or Rs 33600 per vehicle(Rs 42/ltr), Approx 2MT of CO2 will be reduced per trip.Energy saving due to White Toppinga) The cost of lighting streets in urban areas2Lighting fixtures are important elements of most urban streets. Enhanced night time visibility is related to improved traffic safety. A report comparing environmental impacts of concrete & asphalt overlays indicates that asphalt overlays require more lights per unit length to achieve the same illumination (Gajda and VanGeem 1997).To overcome the lack of light reflectance, during nights, an asphalt overlay requires either1) More street lights per mile than a concrete overlay, or 2) Higher watt light bulbs at the same light pole spacing as used on Concrete overlay.In either case, more energy is consumed to illuminate the asphalt roads. Where more poles are installed, initial costs are more.Visibility during nights – in cityConcrete’s superior reflectance improves night visibility, saves money on street lighting and reduces power consumption.Surface reflectance readings on concrete overlays are 4-5 times higher than asphalt overlays, which means drivers can see the road, other vehicles and pedestrians clearer and sooner, thus helps in reducing accidentsSafety: How Quickly Can You Stop?From a study, it has been noticed that breaking distance for concrete overlays are less compared to asphalt overlay, hence concrete overlays are safe on both dry and wet surface condition. The breaking distance even increases with rutted asphalt surface. This clearly shows that the concrete overlays are more sustainable in reducing the wear and tear of tyres, brake drum, and reduces the consumption of brake oil.Heat Island Effect – Concrete v/s Asphalt overlayIn Urban areas, the Heat Island Effect can contribute significantly to energy consumption for air conditioning to cool the urban building. This also costs money, in-turn leads to emissions at power generation units. One estimate that the increase in temperature due to Heat island effect accounts for 5-10 per cent of peak urban electric demand for air conditioningLower Energy Footprint

Embodied primary energy is a measure of all energy use associated with the production, delivery and maintenance of a facility over predetermined time period. It includes both feedback energy and primary energy.The study here shows that asphalt surface require 2 to 5 times more energy than equivalent concrete surface. Fig shows illustrates, the embodied primary energy associated with concrete pavement is only about 33 per cent of the embodied primary energy of asphalt pavements.Graph shows comparison of embodied primary energy for asphalt and concrete pavementsRecyclability /reusability and Natural resourcesConcrete pavement is a 100 per cent recyclable material and at its ultimate end of fatigue, concrete pavement can be crushed and reused as granular fill, sub base/ base material for new pavement. This leads to reduced demand on non-renewable natural resources. Based on the analysis, on equivalent pavement designs for asphalt and concrete pavements for an arterial road on a low- strength sub grade, approximately twice as much granular material is needed for an asphalt pavement structure than for concrete pavement.ConclusionsConcrete overlays / pavements are sustainable, economical, long- lasting and truly green roads in more than many ways against asphalt overlays;

  • Technical reasons clearly show that concrete overlays are long lasting (over 30 years), require little or no repair or replacement as is in case of asphalt overlays
  • Concrete overlays cost little maintenance or 1/8th to 1/10th of asphalt overlays and thus no frequent repair of road results in traffic jam and fuel emissions
  • Saving in fuel consumption up to 20 per cent has been noticed. However, in urban areas the saving will be about 10 per cent for (10MT) buses and trucks. This results reduction in CO2, NO2 and SO2 emission over life cycle period of 30 years
  • Use of fly ash, GGBS and silica fume, improves the performance of concrete, saves money, reduces the need for disposal in landfills greatly, reduces energy use and generation of green house gases
  • Concrete overlays are light coloured and lead to improved visibility, reduced lighting requirement and reduce accidents in cities
  • Cool surface of concrete overlay reduces heat island effects in cities
  • Concrete overlay’s overall energy footprint means tremendous savings in energy over the lifecycle of concrete overlay
  • Concrete overlays renewability and 100 per cent recyclability lead to reduced demand on non renewable resources and save the quantity of sub base materials

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Economy & Market

We are shaping the future of clean air




Monil Parikh, Managing Director, Techflow Enterprises Pvt Ltd, leads us to a better understanding of how cutting-edge designs and advanced technologies are revolutionising the process of filtration, driving efficiency and environmental responsibility within the cement sector.

Tell us about your air pollution control systems.
Techflow Enterprises, operating from our expansive 30,000 sq m facility, which is one of India’s largest, manufactures a comprehensive suite of air pollution control systems specifically designed for cement plants. Our solutions include:

Pulse Jet Bag Filters: Employing compressed air for efficient cleaning, these capture fine dust particles generated during grinding and packing. Techflow’s bag filters are designed to restrict the outlet emission up to 5mg/Nm3.
Electrostatic Precipitators (ESPs): Ideal for ultra-fine particulate matter in kiln exhaust gases, ESPs utilise an electric field for superior dust capture with 99.9 per cent capacity.
Centrifugal Fans: We offer various fans like induced draft (ID) fans for draft creation, process fans for dust-laden air transport, and kiln fans for high-temperature gas streams.
Techflow’s commitment to quality is evident in our proven track record. We are actively supplying solutions to leading cement players like Adani Cements, Ambuja and ACC Cement, Dalmia Bharat Cement and Wonder Cement. Our installations across India and Asia stand as a testament to our expertise in handling cement plant dust control challenges.

How do your products and systems integrate with cement plants?
Techflow’s air pollution control systems seamlessly integrate into your existing cement plant. Our pulse jet bag filters fit effortlessly downstream of grinding mills and packing stations, effectively capturing fine dust particles generated during these processes. Electrostatic Precipitators (ESPs) excel in kiln exit gas streams, working alongside existing cyclones to achieve ultra-fine particulate control, a critical step in maintaining clean air emissions.
Techflow’s comprehensive offering of centrifugal fans ensures a perfect fit for any application. Our ID fans seamlessly integrate into the kiln system, creating the necessary draft to pull exhaust gases through the air pollution control equipment. Process fans, strategically placed throughout the plant, efficiently convey dust-laden air from various generation points, like clinker coolers and raw material handling, towards the filtration units. This modular approach minimises disruption during installation and ensures optimal dust collection across your entire cement production process.
How do your innovative designs better the process of filtration at cement plants bringing efficiency to the process?
Techflow’s commitment to innovation translates to superior filtration efficiency and operational cost savings for cement plants. Our pulse jet bag filters incorporate features like:

  • High-efficiency filter media: Designed for specific dust types, this media minimises pressure drop across the filter, reducing energy consumption.
  • Improved flue gas entry design
  • Low Pressure Cleaning Systems
  • Optimised pulse cleaning systems: These systems efficiently dislodge dust cake buildup using compressed air, maximising filter media life, and minimising downtime.

Our ESPs utilise advanced electrode designs to enhance particle collection and reduce maintenance intervals. Furthermore, Techflow’s centrifugal fans are meticulously crafted for superior aerodynamic performance, leading to lower energy consumption and improved overall plant efficiency.
Techflow has developed a SMART-LINK automation module for better maintenance and real-time remote tracking of performance of each equipment. Cement plants equipped with Techflow’s systems experience reduced operational costs, minimised downtime and compliance with ever-evolving environmental regulations.

What is the key differentiator between traditional filters and modern filters?
Traditional bag filter systems often relied on manual cleaning methods, leading to inconsistent performance, increased downtime, and potential worker exposure to dust. Modern pulse jet bag filters, like those offered by Techflow, address these limitations.
Our systems leverage automated cleaning mechanisms, ensuring consistent filtration efficiency and minimal operator intervention. Additionally, advanced filter media materials in Techflow’s bag filters offer superior dust capture capabilities compared to traditional fabric filters.
This commitment to modern technology translates to a safer and more efficient and environmentally friendly dust control solution for cement plants.

Can your designs be customised as per the requirement of the customers?
At Techflow, we understand that every cement plant has unique dust control requirements. That is why we prioritise customisation across our entire product range:

Pulse Jet Bag Filters: Filter media type and micron rating based on dust properties, number of filter bags, and pulse cleaning system configuration like cycle time and pressure can all be adjusted to optimise performance for your specific dust and airflow. The system can be designed to achieve less than 5mg/Nm3 outlet emission standards as well.

  • Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP): ESP design can be customised with features like the number of electrode rows, electrode spacing, and power input like voltage and current to achieve the desired dust collection efficiency for your specific outlet emission capacity less than 20mg/Nm3.
  • Centrifugal Fans: Fan designs are tailored by adjusting factors like impeller diameter, blade design, and motor size to meet the specific pressure and flow requirements of various processes within a cement plant.

This focus on customisation ensures Techflow’s air pollution control systems perfectly match your cement plant’s needs, guaranteeing optimal dust capture and efficient operation.

What is the role of technology and automation in building filtration systems?
Techflow has designed a SMART-LINK System that can be integrated to our equipment which tracks and monitors performance of equipment in real time.

  • Continuous diagnostics
  • Condition-based maintenance
  • Prevention of unplanned downtime
  • Early problem detection using AI
  • Data collection for process optimisation and efficiency maximisation
  • Auto alert with warning driving timely human interactions
  • Remote maintenance assistance by Techflow Team.

What are the major challenges in the filtration process and your system integration at cement plants?
The cement industry’s focus on sustainability, higher production and diverse fuel sources creates filtration hurdles. Adapting to changing dust properties, handling increased dust loads, and integrating seamlessly within space constraints are key challenges.
Techflow tackles these issues through advanced design techniques, exploration of innovative filter media, and modular system design. This ensures our filtration systems remain adaptable, efficient and seamlessly integrated within your cement plant, empowering your success.

How do you plan to further better your products and bring innovation in the future?
At Techflow, we are not just building filtration systems, we are shaping the future of clean air in the Indian cement industry. After successful expansion of the manufacturing facility in 2023, now it is time to improve designs and process optimisation. The future holds exciting possibilities: next-generation filter media with self-cleaning properties and
extended lifespans, minimising maintenance and maximising efficiency.
Techflow’s legendary after-sales support is about to get even better. We are expanding our global service network to provide you with 24/7 access to a team of India’s most experienced filtration specialists, ensuring your system operates flawlessly throughout its lifecycle.
Together, we will lead the way towards a sustainable future, paving the path for a greener tomorrow with green cement.

  • Kanika Mathur

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Economy & Market

Digitalisation is changing the logistics landscape




Haresh Calcuttawala, CEO and Co-Founder, Trezix, explains how their platform streamlines export processes, optimises logistics operations, and addresses the challenges faced by the cement industry.

How does your platform help in the compliance of cement exports?
The Trezix platform helps with the end-to-end processes for exporters, ensuring complete visibility of these processes focusing on shipments, documents, compliances, etc. The platform is also integrated with various stakeholders’ part of the export process including integration with Unified Logistics Integration Platform (ULIP) by the Government of India.

What is the impact of your systems on the cost and productivity of a cement plant?
The Trezix platform helps to optimise the turnaround time, visibility of shipment and improving efficiencies, which results in optimisation in logistics cost and improvement in working capital.

What are the major challenges in logistics and how can that be resolved?
A major challenge in the cement industry is the logistics cost and time for delivery. This can only be resolved with faster turnaround time, complete visibility of shipments, delivery lead time and process control to adhere to compliance.

Tell us your views on the change technology is bringing to logistics.
In the cement industry, so far technology has been more focused on internal process, and optimising demand and supply in the area of supply chain. However, now the focus has completely shifted to external stakeholders and their processes, and how have we integrated processes to further optimise the logistics execution.

Can your systems and solutions be customised based on customer requirements?
Every customer has some unique value proposition for their customer segment. Trezix has flexibility by way of configuration to adhere to industry needs and specific customer needs, keeping in mind the regulatory processes are not deviated to fulfil statutory requirements.

How do you foresee the face of logistics changing for the cement industry?
Digitalisation is one of the biggest waves you can see in the logistics space, which is changing the face of the industry. Digitalisation is changing the logistics landscape. Various concepts like Just In Time (JIT) to customer delivery are now a reality. Vehicle utilisation, fuel efficiency, delivery visibility, vehicle tracking through RFID, Fastag, FOIS (rail receipt tracking), container/cargo tracking across geography is now a reality.

  • Kanika Mathur

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Drones can ferry small batches of cement




Ankit Kumar, Co-Founder and CEO, Skye Air, highlights the advantages of drone deliveries for the cement industry to improve the overall operational efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the supply chain.

What is the environmental impact that drone deliveries can create?
Drone deliveries have the potential to significantly reduce environmental impact compared to conventional delivery methods. By utilising drones, the carbon footprint of last-mile delivery can be slashed by eliminating the need for vehicles and vans, which emit greenhouse gases during transport. In fact, studies have shown that drone deliveries can reduce carbon emissions by up to 80 per cent compared to traditional delivery methods. Additionally, drones provide more direct routes, minimising congestion and further lowering emissions.
Furthermore, Skye Air’s implementation of drone technology can contribute to a substantial decrease in air pollution. Traditional delivery vehicles, powered by fossil fuels, contribute significantly to air pollution, whereas drones operate on cleaner energy sources, such as electricity. As a result, the adoption of drone technology by Skye Air could lead to a notable reduction in harmful pollutants released into the atmosphere.
It’s worth noting that Skye Air is committed to continuous monitoring and optimisation of its operations to ensure that the environmental benefits of drone delivery are maximised. Through data-driven analysis and innovative strategies, Skye Air aims to further enhance the efficiency and sustainability of its drone delivery services.
In conclusion, while drone deliveries offer significant environmental benefits, rigorous management and innovation are essential to mitigate any potential negative effects and ensure the long-term viability of drone delivery operations.

Tell us about the efficiency created by drone delivery systems.
Skye Air has spearheaded a paradigm shift in the logistics industry by substantially augmenting efficiency in their drone deliveries. Drones can help circumvent traditional road networks, bypass traffic congestion and surmount logistical impediments, facilitating expeditious and direct transportation of goods. This heightened efficiency is particularly conspicuous in exigent circumstances, such as the delivery of medical supplies to remote regions or the expeditious fulfillment of urgent orders. By harnessing the capabilities of drones, Skye Air optimises delivery routes, curtails fuel consumption, and mitigates the overall operational costs inherent in conventional delivery methodologies.
Indeed, empirical data underscores the efficacy of drone deliveries, showcasing a significant reduction in delivery times by up to 50 per cent compared to traditional methods. Moreover, drone deliveries have been shown to minimise fuel usage by approximately 60 per cent, contributing to substantial environmental conservation efforts.
Furthermore, the automation of the delivery process not only expedites operations but also bolsters efficiency, resulting in enhanced customer satisfaction rates. With streamlined processes and expedited turnaround times, Skye Air sets a new standard for excellence in the logistics domain.

What is the role of digitalisation and technology in your delivery and transport system?
In Skye Air, digitalisation and technology serve as pivotal catalysts in revolutionising our delivery and transport system. Through the integration of cutting-edge drone technology like Skye UTM, we have established a streamlined and efficient delivery process. Our drones are equipped with state-of-the-art navigation systems and sensors, enabling precise and secure delivery routes. Skye UTM stands as the most advanced and indigenised Aerial Traffic Management platform, designed to furnish situational awareness, autonomous navigation, risk assessment, and traffic management to all drone and aerial mobility operators across the airspace. Skye UTM has already facilitated successful BVLOS (Beyond Visual Line of Sight) drone flights. The Skye UTM captures over 255+ parameters of UAV movements, storing them in its ‘Black box’, which comprises a published systematic description of the entire flight. This platform offers the inaugural 3-Dimensional view of the drone airspace, alongside operations and regulations mapping servers, furnishing the latest airspace status, verified paths, and exhibiting real-time UAV movements. Furthermore, our digital platforms empower customers to seamlessly place orders and track their deliveries in real-time. This digitalisation not only amplifies the velocity and precision of our deliveries but also ensures transparency and accountability throughout the entire process.

Can drone deliveries be incorporated with the cement industry in the future?
In the foreseeable future, the incorporation of drone deliveries holds promise for integration within the cement industry, presenting efficient and swift transportation solutions for materials. The sophisticated drone technology prevalent in logistics stands poised to collaborate seamlessly with cement companies, optimising their supply chain operations. Drones can ferry small batches of cement or other construction materials to remote or challenging-to-access locations, thereby diminishing reliance on conventional transportation modes such as trucks and mitigating logistical complexities. Through the strategic utilisation of drones, the cement industry stands to bolster its efficiency, curtail costs and elevate overall operational efficacy.

  • Kanika Mathur

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