Where do Indian cement manufacturers stand compared with those in other countries in achieving high level of energy efficiency, and why?
According to the Bureau of Energy Efficiency India (BEE India), India is the second largest producer of cement in the world. With a minimum energy consumption threshold of 30,000 tonne of oil equivalent (ToE), about 85 Cement plants in India were notified as Designated Consumers under PAT cycle-I. Against a total saving target of 0.815 million TOE, the sector achieved 1.480 million TOE of energy savings, thereby saving 4.34 million ton of CO2. The energy consumption till the year 2030, under scenarios with PAT and Business as Usual (BAU), has been projected for this sector as shown below:
The average specific thermal and electrical energy consumption of India's cement plants as compared to their global counterparts are given in below table, creating them as role model in world cement industry.
Last few years, some modern Indian cement plants are operating around 670 to 680 kcal/tonne clinker and 70 Kwh/t cement, which are better than best operating plants at Europe and Japan.
We know some plants are even doing better than the above results, hence what do you suggest on their achievement?
Yes, we are aware some plants are doing 10-15 kCal less in fuel consumption and about five to six units less in power consumption and this is possible, if the other border line cases (plants) engage in a regular energy audit by us/third party, where the figures can be evaluated following the M&V audit systems.
What are the energy efficiency standards that Indian cement manufacturers have to follow and what are the strategies they adopt and challenges they face in adhering to them?
Indian cement sector is one of the most energy efficient in the word and continuously adopting the latest technologies for energy conservation. The cement industry is facing many challenges due to incremental higher cost of electricity and fuel. To sustain, cement industry is adapting the new technologies to reduce the total energy cost.
The projected energy consumption given in below table for India and global average shows that Indian cement sector is focusing to reduce the electrical and thermal energy consumption.
What are the incentives that are available to cement manufacturers for increasing energy efficiency - financial, non-financial as well as governmental, if any?
The captive solar power project connected to the cement plant gives an attractive return on investment due to accelerated depreciation. The power generated from solar power unit is giving lot of positive impact for calculating total specific power consumption (SPC), reducing the PAT target substantially, ESCerts can be traded through IEX. Similarly, power from WHRS also outside the boundary limit of total energy input reduces the SPC. The power from WHRS also eligible for creating ESCerts which also can be traded through IEX.
What are the latest technologies/processes available for manufacturers to achieve the highest level of efficiency and what kind of capital investments they call for?
Presently, there are many high-efficient equipment/technologies that are being implemented in the cement plants such as:
High efficiency cooler
WHRS and captive solar power plant
High efficiency low NOx calciner
Use of alternative fuel for thermal substitution of fossil fuel
Low NOx high efficient burner to reduce kcal/kg clinker
High efficiency grinding system with roll press or high efficient grinding system with VRM
Introduction of composite cement reduces the overall consumption of energy for producing cement and reducing the carbon footprint. Optimisation of raw mix composition reduces the specific heat of reaction; introduction of Robo laboratory reduces the human error and increases the efficiency. Introduction of cross-belt analyser for mineral for continuous analysis of incoming raw materials which optimises the asking target of raw material quality and increases the mining life.
Are there any disruptive technologies that are in the offing for this purpose, and how do they compare with traditional technologies?
Introduction of green cement could change the landscape in cement consumption and improve the environmental sustainability drastically. Cement after water is the major natural resource which is being used across the globe. Cement use in construction has a history dating back thousands of years, and in that time the material has undergone numerous changes and improvements. Today, cement continues to evolve for the better.
Cement is very important building material among other in construction industry. Cement has replaced all other building materials, like clay and lime, which ruled high for hundreds of years, in construction from last century. It has an ability to hold the structure together. The most common cement used today, Portland cement, came from a different source. Portland cement evolved from the cements used in Britain in theámid-19th century.
Present cement consumption in terms of per capita stands at 500 kg/person/annum in the developed countries while under developed countries is 200 kg/person/annum, catching up fast due to improved income level and lifestyle style. Hence, there is a huge scope of increase of cement demand in the market. The cement production is the most pollutant in the world, which is almost 600 kg CO2 emission per tonne of cement. Hence to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and to achieve the environmental sustainability, promoting the green cement is very essential.
How receptive are Indian manufacturers to these latest technologies at a time when they are running their plants at a low PLF?
Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation are currently fueling exponential market demand for cement globally. According to WBCSD Status Review 2018, the market demand is expected to reach over $725 billion by 2025, expanding at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.3 per cent from 2017 to 2025. India, the second largest producer of cement in the world, is experiencing a similar wave of dynamic growth as an outcome of rising consumer demand, inflow of foreign direct investments (FDI), oligopoly market conditions and affirmative policy instruments that could help in achieving the cement production around 600 MT by 2025 in India.
Cement demand is growing but is still beyond the reach of many, due to the ever increasing cost of production and also due to the constraints of raw material availability, environmental issues, infrastructure and logistics issues. Today the key of development of cement production/market is the sustainable development with reduced carbon footprint.
Sustainable development is one, which strikes harmonious balance between industrial activities and practical environmental protection requirements. So the energy management, its conservation and environmental aspects have been the key area in the production of cement and other core industries.
Thus a more realistic solution strategy is - to replace ordinary Portland cement with an alternative binder, which shall have a very significant impact on the carbon dioxide emission. Such an alternative may face harsh scrutiny with regards to its mechanical properties, costs, processing, and applications and also non-conformity to the existing standard specified.
These challenges, while significant, do not prevent such a material from achieving wide-spread use in the construction industry, such as dry mix and repair products, cementations materials like Fly ash - class C+F, slag (GGBFS) added with certain binders, to use them as a replacement of Grey cement -OPC. Since the cement is made without clinker, and using industrial waste material, the carbon foot-print will be negligible compared to traditional cement.
ERCOM'are an ISO-9001:2015 certified, Multi Disciplinary, Technical and Engineering Consultancy Organization specialized in the field of Cement & Building Materials Industry and have successfully provided Technical & Engineering Consultancy Services in over 30 countries across the globe during the last 34 years."ERCOM"is part of a Global Multi-national Group M/s Integrated Project Services (IPS) based in Pennsylvania, USA with their Indian Operations employing over 400 competent technical experts based in New Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad & Hyderabad.... Our Group specializes in the field of Cement, Captive Power Plant, WHR, WTE, Solar, Infrastructure & Building Materials Industry including Composite & Green Cement.